The criminal mastermind known as the Yellow Claw (real name Plan Chu, his real title is the "Golden Claw") was born over 150 years ago in mainland China. He is a descendant of Genghis Khan himself or so he claims and has been the leader of a secret society based in China that was founded during the Mongol Empire, called "Eternal Empire" which in the 20th century became known as the "Atlas Foundation". Which has bases throughout the world, including the subterranean, underwater, and island kind. Originally the headquarters was in China, but a new one was built miles below San Francisco. He also for a time controlled the Asian branch of the worldwide terrorist organization, Hydra.
A genius in biochemistry, the Yellow Claw has formulated elixirs that have prolonged his life span, enabling him to retain his physical vitality over the century and a half of his existence. He is also a genius in other fields, inventing or building a wide variety of vehicles, weapons, and robots more advanced than that possessed or used by the nations of the world and most organizations, heroes, or villains in Earth-616.
For decades the Yellow Claw has dedicated himself to achieving world domination and supplanting western civilization with his own "new older" ruled by himself and his heirs. Although his native China has undergone a Communist revolution, the Yellow Claw retains many of the ways of imperial China. In the 1950s the Yellow Claw made an agreement with General Sung and other Communist Chinese leaders whereby the Yellow Claw would undertake to destroy the western democracies and conquer the United States and the rest of the western world on behalf of Communist China.
In fact, the Yellow Claw only pretended to serve the Communist Chinese hierarchy, and intended to conquer the world for himself. However, his feigned alliance with the masters of the People's Republic of China proved beneficial to him for decades. He has made several attempts to conquer the world, all of which were fortunately stopped by the international law enforcement / intelligence agency of SHIELD or various super-heroes (e.g. Nova, Captain America, etc).
Among the Yellow Claw's inventions and engineering feats have been a series of bipedal robots armed with death rays and electric discharges. He has created giant mutated arthropods, such as spiders the size of cars. Built a huge base on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean and a weapon that would create tidal waves hundreds of feet tall. He invented a compound to be dispersed in the atmosphere that would have sterilized all humans which, permitting a chosen few safely hidden in secret bases to repopulate the world.